“Most couples would be able to conceive in a year if they
have regular intercourse without the use of contraceptives.
Infertility could be a result of reproductive problems in both
male and female.”


“Most couples would be able to conceive in a year if they have regular intercourse without the use of contraceptives. Infertility could be a result of reproductive problems in both male and female.”

Fertility Screening

What is fertility screening?

Screening prior to trying for a baby can help a couple better understand their reproductive systems and help to identify some factors which can contribute to the success of the process. There are different screenings for male and female.

Dr. Fong Yang will recommend the relevant tests appropriate for your condition upon consultation.

Male Fertility Screening

  • A simple sperm analysis can determine sperm count, motility and morphology (structure).
  • Laboratory investigations or ultrasound scans to assess if there are obstructions in the sperm delivery system (if needed).
  • Other specialised tests for sperm quality and function (if needed).

Female Fertility Screening

  • Preliminary tests involve blood tests to investigate if there are any hormonal factors affecting fertility.
  • Ultrasound scans can monitor the ovaries for developing follicles. It would also be possible to detect abnormalities in the womb.
  • A hysterosalpingogram (HSG) can be done to detect any blockage in the fallopian tubes. This procedure, done in the hospital, involves infusing a solution through the cervical cavity. An x-ray would then be done to show if there is any flow of the solution through the tubes.
  • Hysteroscopy and laparoscopy are surgical procedures done in the hospital, using a tiny camera. This allows the doctor to observe the uterus, its surroundings and the ovaries, to see if there are any polyps, fibroids or cysts.

Fertility Treatment

What Causes Infertility in Males?

One of the key reasons for male infertility would be the development of sub-optimal sperms or problems with sperm delivery.

Male Fertility Treatment

Some treatment options include the intake of oral medication and/or surgery to address the sperm delivery or production problems.

What Causes Infertility in Females?

  • Blocked fallopian tubes
  • Ovulation disorders
  • Abnormalities in the uterine lining or shape

Female Fertility Treatment

Various treatment options are available depending on the diagnosis of the infertility issue.


A woman who has ovulatory issues might be given clomiphene citrate to help her produce one or more eggs. Ultrasound scans can be scheduled to determine if the ovaries are responding.

If the ovaries do not respond to oral medication, injectable medicines would be recommended. These are administered daily by the patient or her spouse. The dosage and duration of the injections vary with the response to the medication.

If there are eggs which are suitable for ovulation, there are some procedures which could facilitate fertilization.

Intrauterine insemination (IUI)

Intrauterine insemination (IUI) would be recommended for couples who are unable to conceive naturally even with the medications to stimulate the ovaries. An injection is administered to time the release of the mature eggs.

The husband’s semen sample is normally obtained on the morning of the procedure and processed in the laboratory. The processed sperm is then inserted via a catheter into the wife’s uterus to facilitate fertilization. The success of the procedure would be known about 2 weeks later.

In-vitro Fertilization (IVF)

In-vitro fertilization (IVF) is another option for couples who have found little success with the other treatment methods. After stimulating the ovaries with daily injections, the mature eggs are harvested via a procedure known as oocyte retrieval which is done under anesthesia.

A semen sample is also obtained from the husband. The sperm and egg would be fertilized in the laboratory. The fertilized egg is then cultivated in the laboratory for 3 – 5 days. These embryos will then be frozen, and later transferred into the uterus at a scheduled date. Up to 2 embryos can be transferred each time.

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